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These are the names of the 17 new cardinals the pope appointed at the consistory

November 19, 2016. 13 of them are under the age of 80, and thus able to vote in a hypothetical conclave, and four of them are non-electors.

Your guide to the conclave rules

2013-02-20

JOHN ALLEN
Author, Conclave
"It is a very small group composed of guys who know each other fairly well so it is much more analogous to say the election of a department chair in a university.”

The start of the conclave has to be delayed 15 days, to give all cardinals time to get to Rome, but start no later than 20 days after the beginning of the Sede Vacante.

The Sistine Chapel, where the conclave has to take place, must be sealed off, and the insides checked for any hidden recording devices.

For the entire conclave, the cardinals are required to stay at the Vatican's Domus Sanctae Marthae.

BERNADO ESTRADA
Professor, University of the Holy Cross
"They have very good service. It's not a five star hotel, but it's very comfortable.”

Cardinals are not allowed to communicate with the outside world, or have access to the media. They could be excommunicated if they do.

The conclave starts with the Pro Eligendo Papa Mass, asking for God's help in electing the new Pope. From there, they'll head to the Sistine Chapel and take an individual oath of secrecy and to not help any outsiders trying to intervene in the conclave. Then they start voting.

JOHN ALLEN
Author, Conclave
"In many ways, the voting is the most complicated and time consuming part of this process.”

In order for a cardinal to become Pope, he's required to get two thirds of the votes. On the first day they'll vote only once. But after that, twice in the morning and twice in the afternoon.

There will be a pause for prayer and discussion each time, after thirteen ballots, if no cardinal gets the two thirds majority.  

To find out how they vote, Mexico's Cardinal Barragán shares his experience from 2005.

CARD. JAVIER LOZANO BARRAGÁN
Cardinal Deacon of St. Michael the Archangel
"On the line of each ballot, we must write the name of the cardinal we choose, but in capital letters, and in a way that no one can tell who's voting.”

Each papal elector then walks up the altar of the Sistine Chapel, folds his ballot twice, and places it in this plate. After affirming it's his, he drops it into a receptacle. Three cardinals, whose names were chosen at random, will tally the ballots individually.

CARD. JAVIER LOZANO BARRAGÁN
Cardinal Deacon of St. Michael the Archangel
"The first cardinal, on the far left, will silently read the ballot. He passes it to the second, who reads it silently. He passes it to the third who reads it out loud.”

The ballots will be strung together using a needle, to avoid double counts. Thee other cardinals will double check the tallies to ensure the counts are correct. After that, all cardinals will turn in their notes, which will be burned, along with final ballot tallies.

BERNADO ESTRADA
Professor, University of the Holy Cross (preparativi esp, April 2005)
"When you burn incense, it produces white smoke, and you call that the fumata bianca. When you only burn the ballots where the candidate's name was written, then that smoke will be usually be black.”

JOHN ALLEN
Author, Conclave
"Once a Pope has crossed a two-thirds majority, the dean of the College of Cardinals steps out to the balcony, or what happened last time,was the dean of the College of Cardinals got elected, so it would be the vice dean, would come to him and say, do you accept your canonically vowed position as successor to Saint Peter, and as soon as he says, 'acceto', or I accept in Italian, he becomes the Pope.”

The Cardinal Dean, or highest ranking Cardinal Bishop, will also ask the newly elected Pope (and therefore Bishop of Rome) what name he would like to take on.

The new Pope will change into one of the three best-fitting white tunics, already prepared for his election. After greeting his peers, he then prepares for the Apostolic Blessing Urbi et Orbi at St. Peter's Square, marking the end of the conclave.


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