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Vietnamese Cardinal Who Endured 23-Year Arrest Dies

He was named bishop in 1963, and the communist regime sentenced him to house arrest. ; The sentence was carried out for 23 years, and Pham was not able to visit any parish in his territory until 1986. ; ;

During his period of arrest, he wrote poetic works in allegory about the life of Jesus and Christian doctrine, to help people learn it by memory. ;

In 1990, he was made apostolic administrator of Hanoi, and four years later became cardinal and archbishop. ; John Paul II kept him on the job until February of 2005, at the age of 84. ; ; ;

This is one of his final public appearances in December of 2005. ; A few months later, he became seriously ill, but continued working from his residence on behalf of the Catholic Church in Vietnam.